Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District - northern fairy tale of Russia
The Yamalo-Nenets District was established in 1930 and became one of the 8 national associations of northern peoples. In 1977, he acquired autonomy, and received the status of a subject of the Russian Federation in 1992. Today he belongs to the Ural FD and is part of the Tyumen region.
YaNAO settled in the north of the West Siberian Plain and covers an area of more than 769 000 km², more than half of which is located beyond the Arctic Circle. At 800 km from its northern hemisphere, the Yamal Peninsula is located - a treasure of permafrost. This place is called the gas heart of Russia, because the volume of gas here is so great that often natural fuel breaks out.
Complete development of the peninsula due to harsh climatic conditions is difficult, so it is only partially inhabited. Nevertheless, Yamal is considered a dynamically developing region, which is of great importance not only for the life of all northern regions, but for the country as a whole.
The climate of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District is quite severe. The Arctic part is characterized by long winters, accompanied by fogs, storms, snowstorms and severe frosts. Summer lasts about 50 days. In the subarctic zone, not much is better: rain, cold and the same short summer. The taiga strip is considered more favorable: the warm season lasts about 100 days, and in winter the temperature is not so low.
The south of the YANAO is submerged in dense taiga forests, the north is covered by the endless plain of the tundra, and in the west extends an 200-kilometer mountain range. With words it is simply impossible to describe the natural splendor of the landscape. On the northern side, the district is washed by the cold Kara Sea. Its bay, called the Ob Bay, is one of the largest sea bays in the Arctic zone of Russia.
A large number of rivers flow through the territory of the district, including the Ob, Nadym, Taz, and others. Another characteristic feature of the Yamal landscape is the large number of lakes of glacial origin. Here is an artesian pool with huge reserves of thermal waters.
YaNAO is one of the main fuel and energy complexes of the country. It is here that there are huge reserves of valuable natural resources: carbons, gas and oil. In its territory there are more than 130 fields, and the recoverable oil reserves amount to 14% of the total for the country. The development and extraction of minerals is one of the main directions in the economy of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.
Other industries in which the district has succeeded are the traditional types of economy of northern peoples: reindeer herding and fishing. In the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, 1 / 3 of the world's fish stocks of the most valuable whitefish is extracted.
The predominant part of the population are indigenous peoples: Khanty, Nenets, Komi and Selkup, as well as Russians. Along with them in the district are representatives of more than 10 other nationalities and nationalities, including Tatars, Byelorussians, Ukrainians, Moldovans, Germans, Mari, and others.
The culture and traditions of the indigenous people of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District have their own specifics, and it consists in the isolation of individual peoples from each other. This is due to the fact that the formation and development of each of them occurred independently and in isolation. Religious and moral norms here are on the first place, and mutual respect and benevolent attitude is a public axiom.
The largest administrative center of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - Salekhard - is the only city in the world that is located in the latitude of the northern Arctic Circle.
Most of the cultural heritage of the district are archaeological sites. It is in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District that the remains of the ancient animals of the Neogene period, the tools of the tribes and other interesting artifacts are most often found. One can not help saying about the religious places in the northern outback. There are many religious buildings, sanctuaries and sacrificial sites. In the territory of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug there are many objects of ethnic culture, architectural monuments and reserves. The tenth part of the total area of the okrug consists of specially protected areas (territories covered by a special security regime).
Since the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District is a strategically important region for the state, special attention is paid to its development. Financing is growing, transport infrastructure is improving, the investment attractiveness of the region is increasing. The outlook for the development of the district is very impressive, because not only the situation of the northern regions, but also the country as a whole depends on its well-being.