This is the only subject in Russia on the islands, belonging to the Far Eastern Federal District. It includes a large island of Sakhalin, small Moneron and Tyuleny, as well as the entire Kuril range. The regional center is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.
In 1947, the northern part of the region was merged with the southern districts of Fr. Sakhalin and Kuril Islands, formerly under Japanese jurisdiction and transformed into an independent administrative unit.
Population size and composition
According to official statistics 2016 d, the number of people living in the region is about 500 thousand people. Of these, the urban population is more than 80%.
The density of settlement is uneven: in the south of Sakhalin - 25 person / m & sup2 ;, in the north and the Kuril Islands - about 2 person / m & sup2 ;. The average is 5,7 person / m & sup2 ;.
In the national composition, Russians predominate - almost 87%. Koreans form a group in 5,3%, and the number of Ukrainians and Tatars is about 2% and 1%, respectively. Of indigenous peoples and ethnic groups there are small groups of Nivkhs, Evenks, Orok and Nanais.
Natural and raw materials base
In the region, several types of minerals are extracted in significant quantities: oil, gas, coal, mineral raw materials for chemical production.
There are rocks with silver, copper, tungsten inclusions, nonmetallic gold, chromium, nickel and other essential natural components for the national economy.
The earth is rich in mineral and geothermal waters. The most famous of them are the Sinegorsk springs with a rare composition of curative water (hydrocarbonate-chloride sodium). In Russia, such water is available only in Adler.
Industry and transport
The main production sectors are:
· Oil and gas (more than 90%);
· Coal and energy;
· Fishery and pulp and paper complexes;
· Cultivation of crops (potatoes, vegetables, fodder).
The rivers Poronai, Tym, Liutog and Naybas are not used as active waterways. The main transport role belongs to the sea basin and the Sakhalin Shipping Company occupies one of the leading positions in the Far Eastern region.
As part of the shipping company 8 major ports and 11 cargo terminals, transflot and efficient ferry with the mainland "Vanino-Kholmsk."
At present, the main railway branch is being re-equipped - its translation from the "Sakhalin" gauge (1067 mm) to the standard (1520 mm).
Direct airlines have been established with Moscow, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok and other Russian cities. The internal air and road communication is well developed and constantly modernized.