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White Sea

White Sea
Area: 90,8 thousand km2
The greatest depth: 340 m
The White Sea is an inland sea in the north of the European part of Russia and belongs to the Arctic Ocean. Among the seas washing Russia, the White Sea is one of the smallest (less Sea of ​​Azov). The border between White and Barents The seas are the line drawn from Cape St. Nose (Kola Peninsula) to Cape Kanin Nos (Kanin Peninsula). The White Sea-Baltic canal connects the White Sea with the Baltic Sea and the Volga-Baltic waterway. The entire White Sea is considered to be the internal waters of Russia. The water area of ​​the White Sea is divided into several parts: the basin, the throat (the strait that connects the White Sea with the Barents Sea, the throat of the White Sea by pomors is called "Girlo", this word in exactly this vowels is quoted in his story "Captured Glory" by Boris V. Shergin) Funnel, Onega Bay, Dvinskaya Bay, Mezenskaya Bay, Kandalaksha Gulf.
White Sea
The coasts of the White Sea have their own names and are traditionally divided (in order of listing counter-clockwise from the coast of the Kola Peninsula) to Tersky, Kandalaksha, Karelian, Pomor, Onega, Summer, Winter, Mezensky and Kaninskiy; Sometimes the Mezensky coast is divided into the Abramovsky and Konushinsky coasts, and a part of the Onega coast is called the Lymyk coast. The shores of the sea (Onega and Kandalaksha bays) are cut with numerous lips and bays. The western coasts are precipitous, the eastern banks are low.
White Sea
Bottom relief Large shoal in the northern part of the sea with depths of up to 50 meters in the Dvinsky and Onega Bay passes into the slope, and then into the basin in the central part of the sea with depths of 100-200 meters and maximum depth of 340 meters. The central part of the sea is a closed basin separated from the Barents Sea by a threshold with shallow depths preventing the exchange of deep waters. Bottom sediments in shallow water and in the throat consist of gravel, pebbles, sand, sometimes shell rock. The bottom in the center of the sea is covered with fine-grained clayey silt of brown color. Hydrological regime The hydrological regime of the sea is affected by climatic conditions, water exchange with the Barents Sea, tidal phenomena, river runoff and bottom relief. The tidal wave from the Barents Sea has a semi-diurnal character. The average height of the syzygian tides ranges from 0,6 (Winter Golden) to 3 meters, in some narrow bays reaches 7 meters (7,7 meters in the Mezenskaya Gulf, the mouth of the Semzha River). The tidal wave penetrates upstream the rivers flowing into the sea (on the Northern Dvina for a distance of up to 120 kilometers). Despite the small sea surface area, storm activity is developed on it, especially in autumn, when during storms the wave height reaches 6 meters. Running-surging phenomena in the cold season reach at sea values ​​of 75-90 centimeters. Every year at 6-7 months the sea is covered with ice. Near the shore and in the bays, fast ice forms, the central part of the sea is usually covered by floating ice, reaching thicknesses of 35-40 centimeters, and in severe winters - up to one and a half meters.
Temperature The temperature of the surface layer of the sea water varies greatly depending on the season in different parts of the sea. In summer, the surface waters of the bays and the central part of the sea warm up to 15-16 ° C, while at the same time in Onega Bay and Gorl - not higher than 9 ° C. In winter, the surface water temperature drops to -1,3 ... -1,7 ° C in the center and in the north of the sea, in the bays - up to -0,5 ... -0,7 ° C. Deep water layers (below the depth of 50 meters) have a constant temperature, regardless of the season of the year from -1,0 ° C to + 1,5 ° C, at the same time, due to intensive tidal turbulent mixing in the throat, the vertical temperature distribution is uniform.
White Sea
Salinity Salinity of sea water is associated with the hydrological regime. A large influx of river waters and a small exchange with the Barents Sea resulted in a relatively low salinity of the surface waters of the sea (26 per mille and below). Salinity of deep waters is much higher - up to 31 per mille. Desalinated surface waters move along the eastern shores of the sea and flow through the throat to the Barents Sea, where more saline waters come along the western shores to the White Sea. In the center of the sea there is an annular flow in a counter-clockwise direction.

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