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Kara Sea




Kara Sea
Area: 893 400 km2
The greatest depth: 620 m

The Kara Sea is a marginal sea of ​​the Arctic Ocean. The name of the sea comes from the name of the river Kara, which flows into it. The sea is bounded by the northern coast of Eurasia and the islands: Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, Geyberga. In the northern part of the sea is the Land of Wiese - an island that was discovered theoretically in 1924 year. Also in the sea are the islands of the Arctic Institute, Izvestia Islands CEC. The sea is located mainly on the shelf; Many islands. The depths of 50-100 meters prevail, the greatest depth is 620 meters. Area 893 400 km2. In the sea flowing rivers: Ob, Yenisei, So the salinity varies greatly. The Kara Sea is one of the coldest seas in Russia, only near the mouths of rivers the water temperature in summer is higher than 0 ° C. Fogs and storms are frequent. For most of the year the sea is covered with ice.

Kara Sea
Bottom relief

The sea lies almost entirely on the shelf with depths of up to 100 meters. Two troughs - St. Anne with a maximum depth of 620 meters and Voronin with a depth of up to 420 meters - cut the shelf from north to south. The East Novaya Zemlya trough with depths of 200-400 meters goes along the eastern shores of Novaya Zemlya. Shallow-water (up to 50 meters) The central Kara plateau is located between gutters. The bottom of shallows and hills is covered with sand and sandy ooze. Gutters and basins are covered with gray, blue and brown ooze. At the bottom of the central part of the sea there are iron-manganese concretions.

Temperature and salinity

The water temperature at the sea surface in winter is close to -1,8 ° C, that is, to the freezing point. Water in shallow areas is well mixed from surface to bottom and has the same temperature and salinity (about 34 ppm). The gutters are penetrated by warmer waters from the Barents Sea, so at depths of 150-200 meters they reveal a layer with a water temperature of up to 2,5 ° C and a salinity of 35 per mil. River runoff and melting of ice in summer lead to a decrease in the salinity of the sea water below 34 per mille, in the estuaries of rivers the water becomes close to fresh water. The water warms up in the summer to 6 ° C (in the north only up to 2 ° C) in the upper 50-70 meters (in the east only 10-15 meters).

Kara Sea
Hydrological regime

The circulation of the surface waters of the sea is complex. In the south-western part of the sea there is a closed cyclonic water cycle. In the central part of the sea, from the Ob-Yenisei shoal, the desalinated waters of the rivers of Siberia spread to the north. The tides in the Kara Sea are semi-diurnal, their height reaches 50 - 80 centimeters. In the cold period, sea ice has a big influence on the tides - the tide decreases, the tidal wave propagation is delayed. The sea is almost all year covered by ice of local origin. Ice formation begins in September. There are significant spaces of perennial ice up to 4 meters. Along the coast, fast ice is formed, in the center of the sea there are floating ice. In summer, the ice falls into separate massifs. Annual and secular fluctuations of ice cover are observed.

Kara Sea
Minerals

In the southwestern part of the sea, near the Yamal Peninsula, large offshore deposits of natural gas and gas condensate have been explored. The largest of them is the Leningrad (previously estimated (ABX1 + С2) gas reserves - more than 1 trillion cubic meters and Rusanovskoye (780 billion cubic meters) .The development of offshore fields is planned to begin after 2025 year. In accordance with the agreement between Gazprom and the Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the summer of 2011 (depending on when the Kara gates open), to obtain cores of sedimentary bottom sediments in order to identify the most promising places for industrial drilling, for example, S THE research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh".




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