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Black Sea




Black Sea
Area: 422 000 km2
The greatest depth: 2210 m
The Black Sea is the inland sea of ​​the Atlantic Ocean basin. The Straits connect the Bosporus with the Sea of ​​Marmara, then through the Dardanelles - with the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The Kerch Strait connects with The Sea of ​​Azov. From the north into the sea the Crimean peninsula is crashed deeply. On the surface of the Black Sea is the water boundary between Europe and Asia Minor. A characteristic feature of the Black Sea is the complete (with the exception of a number of anaerobic bacteria) lack of life at depths greater than 150-200 m because of the saturation of deep layers of water with hydrogen sulfide.
Black Sea
Climate The climate of the Black Sea, due to its average continental position, is mostly continental. The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and the southern coast of the Crimea are protected by mountains from cold northern winds and as a result have a mild Mediterranean climate, which is why Vacation in the Crimea So popular. To the south-east of Tuapse is a humid subtropical climate. The Atlantic Ocean has a significant impact on the weather over the Black Sea, over which most of the cyclones that bring bad weather and storms to the sea are born. On the north-eastern coast of the sea, especially in the Novorossiysk area, the low mountains are not a barrier to the cold northern air masses, which, flowing through them, cause a strong cold wind (boron), the locals call it "Nord-Ost". Southwestern winds are usually brought to the Black Sea region by warm and fairly humid Mediterranean air masses. As a result, for the most part of the sea territory is characterized by a warm wet winter and hot dry summer.
Black Sea
Bottom relief The Black Sea fills an isolated depression located between South-Eastern Europe and the peninsula of Asia Minor. This depression formed during the Miocene epoch, in the process of active mountain building, dividing the ancient ocean of Tethys into several separate reservoirs (of which later, apart from the Black Sea, the Azov, Aral and Caspian seas were formed). The Black Sea basin consists of two parts - the western and the eastern, separated by a rising, which is a natural extension of the Crimean peninsula. The northwestern part of the sea is characterized by a relatively wide shelf strip (up to 190 km). The southern coast (belonging to Turkey) and the eastern (Georgia) are more steep, the shelf shelf does not exceed 20 km and is cut by a number of canyons and valleys. Depths off the coast of the Crimea and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus are increasing very fast, reaching levels above 500 m already a few kilometers from the coastline. Maximum depth (2210 m) the sea reaches in the central part, to the south of Yalta.
Black Sea
Flora and fauna The vegetative world of the sea includes 270 species of multicellular green, brown, red bottom algae (cystoseira, phyllophore, zoster, cladofore, ulva, enteromorpha, etc.). In the composition of the phytoplankton of the Black Sea - at least six hundred species. Among them, dinoflagellates are the armored flagellates (Prorocentrum micans, Ceratium furca, small scriptsiella Scrippsiella trochoidea, etc.), dinoflagellates (dinophysis, protoperidinium, alexandrium), various diatoms, etc. The Black Sea fauna is noticeably poorer than the Mediterranean, in particular, here There are no sea stars, sea urchins, sea lilies, octopuses, cuttlefish, squid, corals. In the Black Sea, there are 2500 species of animals (including 500 species of unicellular, 160 species of vertebrates - fish and mammals, 500 species of crustaceans, 200 species of mollusks, the rest - invertebrates of different species), for comparison, in the Mediterranean - about 9000 species. Among the main reasons for the relative poverty of the animal world of the sea: a wide range of salinity of water; Moderately cold water; The presence of hydrogen sulphide at great depths. In this regard, the Black Sea is suitable for dwelling rather unpretentious species, at all stages of development which do not require large depths. On the bottom of the Black Sea, mussels, oysters, pecten, as well as a shellfish rapana, brought by ships from the Far East, live. In the crevices of coastal rocks and among the rocks live numerous crabs, there are shrimps, there are various kinds of jellyfish (the most common are rootworm and aurelia), anemones, sponges.
Black Sea
Among the fish that live in the Black Sea: various species of bull-calves (goby-golovach, bull-whip, goby-round, goby-martovik, goby-rotan), Azov anchovy, Black Sea anchovy (anchovy), shark-katran, Flounder of five species, luffar, merlusa (hake), sea ruff, barbula (common Black Sea sultanka), haddock, mackerel, horse mackerel, Black Sea-Azov herring, Black Sea-Azov tulka, sargan, sea horse, etc. There are sturgeon (Beluga, sevruga, Black Sea-Azov (Russian) and Atlantic sturgeon).
Black Sea
Among the dangerous fish of the Black Sea is the sea dragon (the most dangerous is the poisonous spines of the dorsal fin and gill covers), the Black Sea and notable scorpion, the stingray (sea cat) with poisonous spines on the tail. Seagulls, petrels, duck-ducks, cormorants and a number of other species are common from birds. Mammals are represented in the Black Sea by two species of dolphins (dolphin-whitefish and bottlenose dolphin), Azov-Black Sea common sea porpoise (often called the Azov dolphin), as well as belobyuhy seal. Some species of animals that do not live in the Black Sea, are often entered into it through the straits of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles by the current or sail independently.



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