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Bering Sea

Bering Sea
Area: 2 315 000 km2
The greatest depth: 4 151 m

The Bering Sea is a sea in the north of the Pacific Ocean, separated from it by the Aleutian and Commander Islands; Bering Strait connects it with the The Chukchi Sea And the Arctic Ocean. The Bering Sea is washed by the shores of Russia and the United States. The shore of the sea is cut by bays and capes. Large bays on the Russian coast: Anadyr, Karaginsky, Olyutorsky; On the American coast: Norton, Bristol, Corf Bay (Russia), Gulf of Cross (Russia), Kuskokwim Bay. The islands are mostly located on the border of the sea. Islands: Pribilof Islands (USA), Aleutian Islands, Commander Islands (Russia), including Bering Island, St. Lawrence Island (USA), Diomede Islands, King Island (Alaska, USA), St. Matvei Island, Karaginsky Island, Nunivak (USA) . In the sea flow into the major rivers Yukon and Anadyr.

Bering Sea

Annually, ice forms from the end of September, which melts in July. The surface of the sea (except for the Bering Strait) is annually covered with ice for about ten months (about five months half the sea, about seven months, from November to May, the northern third of the sea). The Gulf of Laurence in some years is not completely cleared of ice. In the western part of the Bering Strait, the ice-fed ice can occur even in August.

Bering Sea
Bottom relief

The relief of the seafloor is very different in the northeastern part, shallow, located on the shelf of more than 700 km, and in the southwestern, deep-water, with depths up to 4 km. Conditionally, these zones are divided by an isobate of 200 meters. The transition from the shelf to the oceanic bed goes along a steep continental slope. The maximum depth of the sea (4151 meter) is fixed in the south of the sea. The bottom of the sea is covered with terrigenous sediments - sand, gravel, shell rock in the shelf zone and diatom ooze in gray or green color in deep-water places.

Temperature and salinity

The surface water mass (to a depth of 25-50 meters) throughout the entire water area of ​​the sea in summer has a temperature of 7-10 ° C; In winter, temperatures drop to -1,7-3 ° C. The salinity of this layer is 22-32 per mille. The intermediate water mass (the layer from 50 to 150-200 m) is colder: the seasonally varying temperature is approximately -1,7 ° C, the salinity is 33,7-34,0 ‰. Below, at depths up to 1000 m, a warmer water mass is located with temperatures of 2,5-4,0 ° C, salinity of 33,7-34,3 ‰. The deep water mass occupies all the bottom areas of the sea with depths more than 1000 m and has temperatures of 1,5-3,0 ° C, salinity is 34,3-34,8 ‰.

Bering Sea

In accordance with the difference in the hydrological conditions of the northern and southern parts of the Bering Sea, northern species are characterized by representatives of Arctic forms of plant and animal life, for the southern - boreal. In the South, there are 240 species of fish, of which there are a lot of flounder (flounder, halibut) and salmon (humpback, chum, chinook). Numerous mussels, balanuses, worms-polychaetes, bryozoans, octopus, crabs, shrimps, etc. In the North, there are 60 species of fish, mainly cod fish. Among the mammals, marine cat, calanus, seals, lahtak, largha, sea lion, gray whale, humpback, sperm whale, etc. are characteristic of marine mammals. Abundant fauna of birds (guillemots, chistiki, puffins, gulls, etc.) inhabiting "Bird markets". Intensive whaling is being carried out in the sea, mainly sperm whale, fish and sea mammals (sea cat, sea otter, seal, etc.).

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