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Barencevo sea




Barencevo sea
Area: 1 424 000 km2
The greatest depth: 600 m

The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of ​​the Arctic Ocean. It washes the shores of Russia and Norway. The sea is bounded by the northern coast of Europe and the archipelagos of Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya. The sea is located on the continental shelf. The southwestern part of the sea does not freeze in winter because of the influence of the North Atlantic Current. The south-eastern part of the sea is called the Pechora Sea. The Barents Sea is of great importance for transport and fishing - here there are large ports - Murmansk and Vardø (Norway). Before World War II, Finland also had access to the Barents Sea: Petsamo was its only ice-free port. A serious problem is the radioactive contamination of the sea due to the activities of Norwegian plants for processing radioactive waste. Recently, the offshore shelf of the Barents Sea towards Svalbard becomes the object of territorial disputes between the Russian Federation and Norway (as well as other states).

Barencevo sea

The shores of the Barents Sea are mainly fjord, high, rocky, strongly indented. The largest bays are the Porsanger Fjord, the Varangian Gulf (also known as the Varanger Fjord), the Motovka Bay, the Kola Bay and others. To the east of the Kanin Nos Peninsula, the coastal relief changes sharply - the banks are mostly low and slightly indented. Here there are 3 large shallow gulfs: (Cheshskaya Bay, Pechora Bay, Haipudyrskaya Bay), as well as several small bays.

Bottom relief

The Barents Sea is located within the continental shelf, but unlike other similar seas, most of it has a depth of 300-400 m, an average depth of 222 m and a maximum 600 m in the trough of Bear Island. The plains (Central Plateau), uplands (Central, Perseus (minimum depth 63 m)], depressions (Central, maximum depth 386 m) and gutters (West (maximum depth 600 m) of Franz-Victoria (430 m) and others) stand out. The southern part of the bottom has a depth of predominantly less than 200 m and is distinguished by an aligned relief.

Barencevo sea
Salinity

Salinity of the surface layer of water in the open sea during the year is in the southwest of 34,7-35,0 ‰, in the east 33,0-34,0 ‰, in the north 32,0-33,0 ‰. In the coastal strip of the sea in spring and summer, salinity decreases to 30-32 ‰, by the end of winter it increases to 34,0-34,5 ‰.

Barencevo sea
Temperature

The arrival of warm Atlantic waters determines a relatively high temperature and salinity in the southwestern part of the sea. Here in February-March the water surface temperature is 3 ° C, 5 ° C, in August it rises to 7 ° C, 9 ° C. North of 74 ° sec. W. And in the southeastern part of the sea in winter the water surface temperature is below -NNUMX ° C, and in summer in the north 1 ° C, 4 ° C, in the southeast 0 ° C, 4 ° C. In the summer in the coastal zone, the surface layer of warm water of thickness 7-5 meters can be heated to 8-11 ° C.

Arctic

Severe climatic conditions in the north and east of the Barents Sea determine its great ice cover. In all seasons of the year, only the south-western part of the sea remains ice-free. The ice cover reaches its greatest extent in April, when about 75% of the surface of the sea is occupied by floating ice. In extremely unfavorable years at the end of winter, floating ice approaches directly to the shores of the Kola Peninsula. The least amount of ice falls at the end of August. At this time, the boundary of the ice is retracted for 78 ° s. W. In the north-west and northeast of the sea, the ice is usually kept year-round, but in certain, favorable seasons the sea is almost completely or even completely free of ice.

Crab
Flora and fauna

The Barents Sea is rich in various species of fish, plant and animal plankton and benthos. Algae are common on the southern coast. Of the 114 species of fish living in the Barents Sea, the most important are 20 species: cod, haddock, herring, sea bass, catfish, flounder, halibut, etc. From mammals there are: polar bear, Seal, harp seal, beluga, etc. The seal is being harvested. On the coasts abound in bird bazaars (guillemot, scourges, gull-kittiwakes). In the XX century the Kamchatka crab was introduced, which was able to adapt to new conditions and begin to multiply intensively. Many different echinoderms, sea urchins and sea stars, of various species, are distributed along the bottom of the entire sea area.

Barencevo sea



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