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Stanovoi range




Stanovoi range
Height of the top: 2412 m

The Stanovoi Range is a system of mountains in Eastern Siberia, between 49 ° and 67 ° of northern latitude and 127 ° and 205 ° of eastern longitude, passing along the Transbaikal, Amur, Yakut and Primorye regions and stretching over 4000 verst. Formed from several components, the Stanovoi Range originates from the continuation of the Daurian steppe upland in the Gobi Desert, in Mongolia, from here to Lake Baikal It is called The Apple Ridge. Composing the southwestern part of the Stanovoi Range, the Yablonoviy Range forms the watershed of the basins of Lake Baikal and The Lena River, On the one hand, and The Amur River, On the other, just as the ridge forms a watershed between the rivers of the North and the Great Oceans, from Dauria and to the Chukchi nose. Separating the Transbaikal region into the north-western and southeastern halves, the Yablon Range in the south-western direction passes near the eastern tip of Lake Baikal, at 49 ° north latitude, and, entering the Chinese limits, continues further under the name of the Kentei Khan Range, from which The beginning of the river: Argun, called in the upper reaches of Kerulen, and Onon, forming together with Ingoda the river Shilku. The western part of the Yablon Ridge represents a mountainous area, which is strongly cut by deep and steep gorges, covered with dense forests and abundant in swamps and streams. A characteristic feature of the Yablonev Range is that, despite its alpine nature, it even at its highest point - the top of Chokondo in the Trans-Baikal region (8259 feet above sea level) - does not cross the line of eternal snows. In parallel to the western part of the Yablon Range, in the direction of the river valleys, there are two chains of mountains: one, known as the Daurian ore mountains, stretches between Onon and Argun to Strelka on the Amur River; The other belongs to the Nerchinsk Mountains and stretches between Onon and Ingoda to the city of Nerchinsk; Then, from the northern tributaries of Lake Baikal and to the sources of the Bureya River, this ridge is called the main Stanovoy ridge; The latter occupies the southern part of the Yakut region, where it gradually crosses the ledges into the valley of the middle reaches of the Lena River.

Stanovoi range

The massif of the Main Stanovoi Range consists of completely pyramidal rocky peaks (according to the local "loach"), completely naked from any vegetation, which are separated from each other by narrow and deep gorges, overgrown with forests. The highest points of the Main Stanovoi Range (from 6 to 7 thousand feet): Atychan, Urpala, Chulbangra, Tuptur and Evata. The slopes of the Stanovoi Range are almost everywhere marshy, covered with small larch, quite inaccessible; Such a picture of the terrain prevails along the course of the Gilyui River, to its mouth stretches along the banks of high and rocky cliffs. Further, along the course of the Zeya River, ie, above the mouth of the Gilyui River, the terrain gradually decreases, being replaced by vast meadows, dotted with many lakes and fringed birch forests. At the source of the river Zeya is believed to be the main junction of the entire Stanovoi range. From here he disperses several long spurs, serving as watersheds between the most significant rivers of Asia. One of these spurs of the Main S. ridge goes to the northeast to the Chukchi nose, parallel to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and to 60 ° northern latitude, known as the Aldan Range; At its foot the river Ud flows, together with its tributary Half, flowing into the Sea of ​​Okhotsk. To the north of the Uda jail, at the mouth of the Uda River, stretches the Siberian slope, which is much less steep than the southeast slope of the Stanovoi Range. In general, all these spurs represent huge hills with narrow, deep gorges, with bare, partly flat, and partly pointed mountain peaks several thousand feet high; On the deep valleys penetrating these mountains, there are a lot of noisy and turbulent streams. Continuing further in the northeastern direction, S. ridge twice branched: at 60 ° north latitude it separates from itself the spurs that serve as a watershed between the rivers flowing into the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and those that flow into the North Ocean; The second branch of the S. ridge falls at 65 ° north latitude and the branch it separates here, running in the north-north-west direction, divides the tributaries of the Indigirka River from the tributaries of the Aldan River; This mountain branch then splits into two mountain spurs: one eastern, going along the right bank of the Yana River, and the other - the Verkhoyansk Range - accompanies the current of the Aldan River for 560 versts, forming its western, elevated shore; After the confluence of the Aldan River in Lena, Verkhoyansky Range, Gradually falling, is lost imperceptibly within the Great Northern Tundra. In addition to the above, the Stanovoi Range at the sources of the Okhota River separates from itself another chain of mountains that runs to the north and serves as a watershed of the Kolyma river basin and the Indigirka River. Gradually decreasing towards the north, this mountain chain on the parallel of the upper reaches of the Alazey river is called the Alazey Mountains; Finally, the Kolyma mountains are separated from the Stanovoi Range near the sources of a significant inflow The rivers of Kolyma, The river Omolona, ​​and under this name stretch north between the two rivers. Further to the northeast, Stanovoi ridge, all the way to the Chukchi nose, separates a number of secondary spurs, crossing the Maritime region from west to east and separating one from the other by extensive marshes and tundras. One of these spurs, going to the junction with the Kamchatka range, called the Russian Range, serves as a watershed of the rivers Penzhina and Anadyr.

Stanovoi range

The eastern part of the Main Ridge reaches the shore of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, turns sharply to the south and continues in this meridional direction to the Amur River, ending with the Bureinsky Range running parallel to the Bureya River. In general, the eastern slope of the entire Stanovoi Range is higher and steeper than the western one. With the exception of the highest point of Chokondo (8259 feet), the entire Stanovoi Range with its many ramifications of almost the same height, namely ridges and peaks from 3000 to 7000 feet, and passes and passes from 2 to 31 / 2 thousand feet. For all that, the spine is considered difficult to traverse. For the first time visited by the Cossacks in 1643, the Stanovoi Range in all its 4000-verst stretch seemed to them an uninterrupted obstacle in the way that separated Siberia from the rest of the world, why they called this endless chain of mountains "the Stanovoi Ridge". Even a comparatively easier route along the Lena and Aldan The Cossacks used the Main Ridge only once, and the path along the Vitim River was soon abandoned by them, as very difficult. In recent times, there have been many, however, unsuccessful attempts (Schwartz, Usoltsev, etc.) to cross the Main Ridge ridge, which testify to the difficulties that they have to deal with in these transitions. Cossacks therefore, where possible, preferred a waterway, which explains why all the fortresses they built were along the banks of large rivers.

Stanovoi range

Although, as mentioned above, the Stanovoi Range does not reach the snow line, nevertheless, snow, especially in its northern part, is kept, for a large part of the year, due to the humid and cold climate. The predominant rock in the Stanovoy Range is granite, but the closer to the North, the more prevailing sedimentary rocks (limestones, sandstones and clays) and the less exposed underneath the crystalline rocks. In general, the fossil wealth of the Stanovoi Range is enormous and extremely diverse, although its geological study is far from over. In the Yablon Ridge, crystalline rocks still strongly prevail over the sedimentary: here granite, gneiss and syenite prevail; However, mica, talc and clay shales are also found in considerable quantities; Silvered lead ore is found to the south of the Gazimur River, and quite rich gold placers to the north; In addition, porphyry, labrador and trachyte have been found. The steep eastern slope of the Stanovoi Range also consists of crystalline rocks; So, near the Uda jail, a lot of dolerite is found, and on the western slope there are gold placers. There are indications, according to the latest data, for the presence of coal deposits, chalcedony, basalts and many other minerals. Noble metals are particularly rich in the Nerchinsk Mountains. The Flora of the Stanovoi Range consists mainly of different species of conifers (Pinus larix, R. cembra, R. abies), birch (Betuba alba, nana), rhododendrons, cloudberry (Rubus arcticus, R. chamaemorus), etc. Wood species, such as , Wild apple and apricot, oak and hazel, are found only on the Yablonevy Ridge. From animals there are a wild goat, wolves and foxes. The severity of the continental climate, the lack of vegetation on the loach and the roads make the ridge unsuitable for cultural life. On its slopes, therefore, there are exclusively nomadic natives: the Tungus of the Yakuts, the Chukchi and the Yukagirs.




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