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Mountaintop Highlands




Mountaintop Highlands
Height of the top: 3000 m

The mountain plateau is a mountain system in Eastern Siberia, from the northern extremity Lake Baikal Up to the middle course of the Olekma river. The length is about 700 km, the width is more than 200 km. The mountain ranges (up to a height of 3000 m) are stretched in the east-north-east direction; Alternate with intermontane basins, the bottoms of which lie at an altitude of 500-1000 m. - part of the extensive podvodnoy raised, composed mainly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks of the Archean and Proterozoic, the basins are made of thick strata of the Cenozoic deposits. High seismicity, ubiquitous distribution of permafrost, and strong disaggregation of the relief cause a greater intensity of modern relief-forming processes. Mineral resources - gold, copper, fluorite, coal. For the relief of the ridges, alpine forms are typical - rocky ridges, peaked peaks, circuses, troughs. The tops of the snowless ridges are laid out, with the mountain (goltsovymi) terraces.

Mountaintop Highlands

The mountain plateau is a mountain system stretching about 700 km from the northern tip of Lake Baikal to the middle course of the Olekma River in the direction east-northeast. It includes mountain ranges of South Muisky, Severo-Muysky, Kodar, Udokan, Kalarsky and large intermontane basins of Baikal type at an altitude of 500-1000 m (Verkhneangarskaya, Muisko-Kuandinskaya, Verkhnecharskaya). The mountain plateau is mainly composed of crystalline and metamorphic rocks with a pervasive spread of permafrost. There are deposits of gold, copper, fluorite, and coal. Vegetation is represented mainly by larch taiga on mountain slopes, which is replaced at altitudes of more than 1200 m by light forests and mountain tundra. The bottoms of the basins are swampy floodplain meadows, and their slopes are covered with pine and pine-deciduous forests.

Climate

The climate is sharply continental. Summer in the basins is warm, lasts 2-3 months, in the highlands - cool and short (in places less than 1 a month). Winter is very cold and long, in the basins - little snow. Precipitation for the year falls from 300-400 mm in the basins, up to 1000 mm on the ridges (more than 60% of them fall on the second half of the summer). Characteristic of temperature inversions. Small glaciers. The river network is dense, in the feeding of rivers the role of thawed waters is great. Many lakes, especially in the basins. On mountain slopes there is a mountain larch taiga; Above 1200 m is widespread pregoltsovoe larch woodland, which in the upper parts is replaced by loach. At the bottoms of the basins - swampy floodplain meadows; On thick strata of sandy deposits - pine and pine-larch forests.

Mountaintop Highlands



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