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Putorana Plateau




Putorana Plateau
The highest peak: Mountain Stone
Height of the top: 1701 m

Putorana Plateau is a heavily dissected mountain range located in the northwest of the Central Siberian plateau. In the north and west, the plateau ends abrupt ledge (800 and more m.), While the southern and eastern parts are characterized by gentle slopes. The maximum height of the plateau is 1701 m, among the highest peaks of Mount Kamen (1701 m.), Holokit (1542 m.), Kotuyskaya (1510). In the north the Putorana Plateau borders on the Taimyr Peninsula. The name Putorana in the translation from Evenk means "lakes with steep banks". On the territory of the plateau is the Putorana State Nature Reserve, recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The administrative plateau is located in the north-west of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, occupying the territory of the Taimyr and Evenk municipal districts. The nearest major settlement is the city of Norilsk.

Putorana Plateau
Physico-geographical characteristics

The surface of the plateau is covered with basaltic lava flows, which are often referred to as Siberian traps. They are found all over the Central Siberian Plateau, but Putorana Plateau is the only large site fully folded with basalt. This is the world's second largest trap plateau after the Dean plateau in India. The proximity of basalt rocks led to the emergence in the northwest of the plateau of large copper-nickel ore deposits, with one of the world's richest percentage of mined metals. The relief is a combination of relatively flat plateaus and large gorges and valleys, the bottom of which is often flooded with lakes. The largest of them - Khantayskoye, Keta, Lama. On the territory of the Putorana Plateau there are the upper reaches of the rivers Kureika, Pyasina, Khet, Kotui, and the right tributaries of the Lower Tunguska. Rivers, punching their way through multilayered rocks, form deep canyons, rapids and waterfalls. Canyons and lake valleys of the plateau are very picturesque. Putorana Plateau is often called "the edge of ten thousand lakes and thousands of waterfalls." By the number of waterfalls, it ranks first in the territory of Russia. Here is also the highest waterfall of Eurasia - Talnikovsky with an altitude of 482 meters. On the Putorana Plateau lies the Geographic Center of Russia - Lake Vivi. The area of ​​the plateau is 250 thousand km2 (Comparable to the territory of Great Britain).

Putorana Plateau
Climate

The southern polar boundary of the Putorana Plateau is the Arctic Circle, so the region is in a zone of severe, sharply continental climate, however, in some lake valleys (eg Lake Lama) there is a much milder microclimate protected from the northern winds. The polar day in the summer is gradually replaced by a polar night in winter. Spring, summer and autumn fit into three months: June, July, August, the rest of the time - winter with a temperature of -NNUMX ° C. In the warmest month (July), the air temperature reaches + 40 ° С. Precipitation falls 16-500 mm mainly in summer, in winter snow cover is small.

Putorana Plateau
Flora and fauna

The territory of the plateau is located in the zone of the subarctic belt, on the border of taiga and tundra. Here there is a rapid change and alternation of the most diverse landscapes: severe mountain tundra is located next to a larch woodland, and thickets of bushes - with spruce forests. On the tops of the mountains is a zone of arctic stony deserts with small sections of glaciers. The vegetation is represented by larch-spruce forests in the valley part of the plateau (up to a height of 300-350 m in the north-west and up to 500 m in the south), sparse forest and shrub tundra on the upper slopes and plateau surface (starting from a height of 500-700 m). . The most elevated, watershed parts of the plateau predominantly take stony and lichen tundra. The fauna of the plateau is diverse. Through its territory lies the migration route of the largest Taimyr wildlife population in Eurasia Reindeer. Here, too, is the northern limit of the range of habitat of the lynx, sable, stone grouse, and fly. Elk, Bear, wolverine, fox, hare are typical representatives of these places. There are rare and endangered species of birds - gyrfalcon, white-tailed eagle. In clean river water there are many fish, including valuable and rare species: muxun, chir, taimen, char, and omul. On the plateau is also inhabited by a little-studied population of a snow sheep, which, being cut off from other habitats of this species, developed in isolation around 15 000 years.

Putorana Plateau



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