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Kolyma Highlands




Kolyma Highlands
The highest peak: Omsukchan ridge
Height of the top: 1962 m

The Kolyma Highlands are a highland in Russia, in the northeast of Siberia, mostly within the territory of the Magadan Region. From the Suntar-Hayat Range extends to 1,3 thousand km to the east and northeast to the valley of the Maly Anyui River and to the sources of the Anadyr River, separating the basin The Kolyma River From the rivers of the Pacific Ocean basin. The maximum height is 1962 m (in the Omsukchan ridge). It consists of a plateau, mid-mountain ranges and massifs, separated by tectonic depressions. The western part of the upland is composed mainly of siltstones and sandstones, and the eastern part is composed of effusive sediments. Numerous granite intrusions have caused large-scale mineralization with gold, tin and rare-earth metals. There are deposits of hard and brown coal in the valleys. Highlands are rich in thermal springs. The valleys and slopes up to heights of 500 m are covered with larch woodlands, on slopes above 500 m with changing shrub and moss-lichen mountain tundra.

Kolyma Highlands

The Kolyma mountain region occupies the extreme eastern regions of North-Eastern Siberia. It is located in the upper reaches of the Kolyma and its right tributaries. It is administered administratively in the territory of the Magadan Region. Its eastern border passes near the mountain massifs forming the watershed of the rivers of the Arctic and Pacific oceans. The region consists of two large orographic units - the Upper Kolyma and the Kolyma uplands proper. The southern regions of the region form the Upper Kolyma Highlands. In the west, it borders on the ridges of Tas-Kystabyt and Suntar-Hayat, in the north it is bordered by chains The Chersky Range. The southern edge of the highlands passes along the massifs forming the Okhotsk-Kolyma watershed - the Seimkansky Mountains (1857 m), the massif Iganja (1777 m), the Ol'skiy Table Mountains (1662 m). In the east it is bounded by the Seimchan-Buundin depression. The average altitudes of the highland are 1000-1200 m, but individual arrays rise above 2000 m. The highest point is the Snow (2293 m) in the Big Angachak Massif. High ridges have alpine appearance, sharp forms of relief. The passes are more often located at altitudes of 1000-1200 m, less often up to 1800 m, their complexity is up to 1B. The system of the Kolyma Upland extends to the south of the region in the northeast, further north to the valley of the Greater Anyui. Its southern boundary is the mountains of the Okhotsk-Kolyma watershed, in the north the Yukagir plateau approaches. The Kolyma Highland consists of heavily dissected medium-sized arrays. The largest ridges radially adjoin the axial part of the highlands: the Omsukchan (1585 m), Korkodon (1760 m), Molokata (1663 m), Konginsky (1561 m), Kedon (1639m), Ush-Urakcheng (1685 m), Olojsky (1816) M). The average altitudes of the uplands are 1300 m. The relief is somewhat smoothed, although the highlands differ in sharp shapes. The passes have heights of 1000-1300 m, the complexity is generally not higher than 1A.

Kolyma Highlands

Rare-resistant larch forests occupy only the lower parts of the mountain slopes and river valleys. Incense poplar and chozenia grow on the floodplain terraces of significant rivers. The upper limit of woody vegetation in the upper reaches of the Kolyma reaches the heights of 1200-1300 m, on the Okhotsk-Kolyma watershed - 800-850 m, in the extreme northern regions does not rise above 300 m. Above is a typical belt of thickets of cedar stlanica. The upper parts of the mountains are covered with tundra. The territory of the Upper Kolyma Highland is the most populated. Through it lies the Kolyma track and its branch - the Tenkinskaya route connecting the coast Sea of ​​Okhotsk (Magadan) with the left bank Indigirki. Here is located one of the most important mining areas of North-Eastern Siberia. Of the settlements, the largest is Susuman, connected by car and air service with Magadan, Ust-Nera, and villages of the region. Pos. Sinegorye has a connection with Magadan and Seimchan. Near the mountainous areas are located Yagodnoye village, Myaunja, Ust-Omchug. There are very few settlements in the Kolyma Highlands. Its southern part is more populated, it gravitates towards the industrial-developed areas of the Magadan Region. Here are the village of Omsukchan, Dukat, Oktyabrina, Galimy, Buksunda village. Villages on the Kolyma River - Seymchan, Balygichan, Omolon are on the border of the region. On the Omolon River there are meteorological stations - Labaznaya and Kegali - in the mouths of the same tributaries. HMS Kedon is located in the valley of the stream Tik, the left tributary of Kedon, at 10 km from the mouth. In the north, near the Big Alyuy are Angarka, Baimka, Vesenny, in which planes fly from Bilibino. In the east of the region, more than 100 km from its border are small villages on the Anadyr River - Lamut, Chuvanskoe, Eropol, connected by regular flights from the village of Markovo and the city of Anadyr.

Kolyma Highlands

The climate of the region is continental, subarctic. Temperatures of winter are somewhat higher than in neighboring mountain areas. The average temperature in January is minus 31-35 ° С. Among the winters may be a thaw. As a result of the crystallization of the snow layer and the formation of deep frost in the mountains, snow avalanches often form. The most dangerous period in this respect is January-April. In the mountains are characterized by frequent snowstorms, strong winds. The wind speed reaches 50 m / s. On the plains prevails often windless frosty weather. In the mountains, temperature inversions are observed. The south-eastern and eastern parts of the Kolyma basin are very snow-white.




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