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Byrranga Mountains

Byrranga Mountains
Height of the top: 1125 m

The Byrranga Mountains are mountains in the far north of Eastern Siberia, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory on the Taimyr Peninsula. The northernmost mountain system in Russia. The mountains are formed by a system parallel or conically arranged ridges (height 250-400 meters) and extensive wavy plateaus (up to 900 meters). Ridges and plateaus share hilly plains, through trough valleys and deep canyons. The mountains stretch for 1100 kilometers from the Yenisei Gulf Kara Sea In the south-west to Of the Laptev Sea In the northeast, the width is up to 200 kilometers. Discovered in 1736 by V. V. Pronchishchev during the Great Northern Expedition.

Byrranga Mountains

Burranga formed at about the same time as the Ural Mountains - in the Paleozoic (Hercynian folding). The Byrranga Mountains are divided into three parts: the western, the central and the eastern. The western part is located between the Yenisei Bay and the Pyasina River valley and has an altitude of 250-320 meters. The central part lies in the interfluve between Pyasina and Taimyr and has altitudes from 400 to 600 meters. The eastern part lies to the east of Taimyr and is the highest with heights from 600 to 1125 meters. In the eastern part of Burrangi there are modern glaciers with a total area of ​​more than 30 km2. In total in Burrang there are about a hundred glaciers, some of which descend to the heights of 600-900 meters. For a long time, the highest point of Burranga was the Glacial Mountain with an altitude of 1146 meters. But in the nineties the height of Lednikova was refined and it turned out that it is only 1119 meters, and the highest point of Burranga was a mountain with an altitude of 1125 meters in another mountain site located more than one hundred kilometers east of Lednikova. The Byrranga Mountains are strongly dissected and consist of a number of mountain ranges, separated by deep river valleys. The slopes of most valleys are steep and covered with screes. The forms of the mountain peaks are diverse: acute-angled peaks with rugged slopes and crags, mountains with flat peaks and gentle slopes are also found. Slopes and peaks are often covered with screes and clumps of clumps (kurums), which form "stone rivers" and "seas". Sometimes among the debris there are boulders brought by the ancient glacier from the sea coast. The mountains are mainly composed of clayey shales, ferruginous sandstones and siltstones (on the surface they are weathered to gravel and gruss), with separate outcrops of dolerites, gabbros and diabases. The central part is characterized by outcrops of limestone, sometimes there are marble domes. Permafrost is permafrost everywhere. Its power is from 200 meters in the southern sections to 300-400 (according to undefined calculated data, even 1000) meters in the eastern part of the mountains, and temperatures of the frozen sequence from -10 to -15 degrees. Permafrost relief forms are widespread everywhere. In the mountains Byrrang found ice. Sharp drops in temperature form stone disintegration in the mountains. Rocks that are not eaten by frost cracks are extremely rare. Until 1960-ies it was believed that Birranga is a rare river network. But in the future it turned out that the river network of the mountain massif is very dense. In the southern foothills there are many lakes (Nadudoturka, Levinson-Lessing, Lake Pronchishcheva and others), the largest - Lake Taimyr.

Byrranga Mountains

The climate is severe, sharply continental with a long very cold winter and a short summer. "The Land of the Dead" this place was called Dolgany and never reached the foothills beyond the foothills. The average temperature in January is -NNUMX ° C, July + 35-3 ° C. Spring begins in June, and in September the winter begins with strong snowstorms. In the eastern part of the mountains, the air temperature is lower than in the western part. Precipitation falls from 5 to 100 millimeters per year. About half of them are in solid form. Maximum precipitation is in summer, maximum of solid precipitation - usually in September-November and June. In February-April, precipitation is minimal. The snow cover is established with the beginning of the cold period and reaches the greatest thickness in May or June. The duration of occurrence of a stable snow cover is about 400 days. The background value of the maximum decade thickness of the snow cover 270-70, see. In the mountains, many sites are exposed to snowstorms, while in the wind shadow the thickness of snow blowing can exceed 90 m. The inspired snowfields are deciphered hundreds of meters long on summer aerial photographs. Snowstorms are very typical for Taimyr. The number of days with a wind force greater than 2 m / s is the largest for Eastern Siberia and is equal to 15 days a year. The average wind speed in winter is about 80 m / s.

Byrranga Mountains
Flora and fauna

On the southern slopes and at the foothills, the moss-lichen tundra is widespread, on the northern slopes and above 500-700 meters the thin arctic tundra, which is replaced by the arctic desert and glaciers. On the southern sheltered slopes, which are well closed in the winter and quickly thawed in the spring, there are mixed mountain meadows and mixed grass tundra. Here there are relict northern ferns. On the territory of the Byrranga Mountains rare species of plants grow: long-nosed goatskin, arctic cane reed, Taimyr ostrich and endemic of Putoran and Byrranga mountains - fescue fescue. In the valley of the river Nerkayhatari, there are the northernmost shrub thickets in the world. Shrubs of willow and alder reach a height of two meters with a thickness of trunks from 5 to 7 cm. The age of these relict bushes is hundreds of years. Closer to the peaks and on the northern slopes, medallion spots are common. Usually they consist of a spot of fine earth and a cushion-curb raised from the surface at 20-30 cm. On the slopes, such medallion spots are stretched into strips. From the height of 500-700 m, the meadow of the arctic tundra remains only at the bottom of the valleys, and lichens are occasionally found on the rocks, among which bright spots of the yagel stand out. The vegetation of limestones is very specific, the outcrops of which are found all along the Byrranga mountain chain. Their surfaces are almost naked, covered with rare plants of calcephilic cereals, Lusquerelli of the Arctic, the Putorana ostrovodochka, but on the more humid slopes, the endemic Besrrangian barbarian is often abundant, in some places - the beautiful Eremogonum, the wool fossil, the Mongolian dendratema and other beautifully flowering species.

Byrranga Mountains

Small animals are numerous lemmings, which in Burrang live two species - Siberian and ungulate. They are the main food of predators, therefore fluctuations in the number of lemmings are subject to the entire life of the region. Common hare is a hare. In summer it is found in the foothills in the meadows of steep southern slopes, in winter - throughout the territory. Near the outcrops of rock and scree there is a northern pika. The most common predator is arctic fox. The largest predator is the wolf. Its number and distribution is unknown because of the secretive way of life of the animal. Rare ermine is rare. He prefers to settle in the rocks on low mountains and on the shores of mountain lakes. Ungulates are represented by reindeer and musk ox. The reindeer usually migrates in April-May from the forest-tundra to the Byrranga Mountains and from them to the coastal lowlands, in August-October back. During the seasonal passage, deer go through numerous herds, sometimes up to ten thousand individuals. Muskox, imported to Taimyr in 1974 year, has now mastered a very significant territory of the eastern part of Byrrang, from the Lower Taimyr in the west to the east coast of Taimyr. Individual individuals live in the central part of Burrang as far as Pyasina. However, most of the animals continue to be kept in the basin of the Bicada River, where they were originally introduced. According to 1999 data, there were about 2000 musk oxen in Byrranga and foothills, and their number continues to grow. In the mountains, a large number of birds live, especially ducks, geese, sandpipers, gulls, red-breasted goosefishes, skuas, polar partridges. Among the birds of prey there are the Mohnopod Buzzard (Rough-legged Buzzard) and the Peregrine Falcon that arrange nests on hard-to-reach ledges of rocks. There is a gyrfalcon. Almost exclusively in the mountains and foothills of Byrranga is a sandpiper sandpiper-red-necked nest. Punochka is the only bird nesting in the Byrranga mountains in the upper belt - above 400 meters above sea level. Within the Byrranga Mountains is part of the Great Arctic and Taimyr Reserves.

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