Lake Chany - a drainless salt lake in Russia, located in the Barabinsk lowland in the Novosibirsk region, the largest lake in Western Siberia. The lake is located on the territory of five districts of the Novosibirsk region: Zdvinsky, Barabinsky, Chanovsky, Kupinsky and Chistoozerny. Its name derives from the word chan (Turkic) - a vessel of large dimensions. Lake Chany is located at an altitude of 106 meters above sea level. The lake has an 91 kilometer in length, 88 kilometers wide. The area of the lake is unstable and is currently estimated to vary from 1400 to 2000 km2. The average depth is about 2 meters. The lake basin is flat. The lake is shallow, the depth to 2 meters is 60% of the total area of the lake. The shores of the lake are rather low and strongly indented, overgrown with reeds, reeds, sedge and shrubs. The bottom is sandy and muddy. The maximum recorded water temperature in summer is 28,3 ° C. Most of the lake is located in the forest-steppe natural zone.
On the lake near 70 islands, the largest are Amelkina Griva, Shuldikov, Lejan, Bear, Kolpachok, Chinyaikha, Cheryomukhovy, Rare. Cheremushkin, Kobyliy, Perekopny, Bekarev, Kalinova, Chinyaikha, Shipyagin, Krugly, Kolotov, Kamyshny are natural monuments of the region, as they preserve unique landscapes that are a habitat for rare species of plants and animals. Among the largest peninsulas are Zelenchak, Kondakov, Golenki, Vaskin, Cape, Drovnikov, Rodyushkin, Kvashnino, Malinikha, Dark, Tyumen. The islands and peninsulas of the lake have a characteristic feature - most of them are stretched from the south-west to the northeast. Their specific location is explained by the fact that they are semi-submerged manes. The lake is slightly salty, in the southeastern part of the lake the salinity is lower. The lake's food is mostly snow, the lake is fed by the rivers Kargat and Chulym (flows into the Maly Chany). Earlier, the Sarayka River flowed into the lake, connecting it with Lake Sartlan. The average annual total flow of the Chulym and Kargat rivers is not very significant and amounts to 0,44 km3, While the runoff is characterized by great variability. Lake Chany is a unique reservoir of Western Siberia. The maximum value of the total flow was reached in 1948 year - 1,72 km3, The minimum - in 1968 year, when it was 0,013 km3. The inflow of water tends to decrease due to the numerous dams built on the rivers. The lake is connected by channels with the more fresh lakes of Maly Chany and Yarkul. The lake is a system of tufts connected by ducts and shallow areas, of which the largest three are Chinyaikhinsky, Tagano-Kazantsevsky and Yarkovsky, differing in mineralization of water, area, depth, soil, and fodder base. It freezes in the second half of October - the first half of November, is opened in May. There is local shipping on the lake.
The climate in the region of Lake Chany is continental. The average temperature in January is -NNUMX ° C, in July - + 19,7 ° C. The frost-free period lasts from 18,3 to 115 days. The average annual precipitation is 120 mm. The height of the snow cover is 380-20,
In Lake Chany, there are 16 species of fish. The most numerous: silver crucian carp, perch, carp, ide, pike perch. The average number is roach, pike, bream. Small species - golden crucian, peled, dace, tench, lake minnow, gudgeon, top. The main place for wintering fish is the Yarkovsky Pole and Lake Yarkul. The most numerous fish in the Yarkovsky range is perch. During the summer period, all the main species of ichthyofauna live in significant numbers in the Chinayikhinsky range, in Tagano-Kazantsevsky mass species are the id, pike-perch, carp, carp, and a little less roach and perch. In shallow water, winter frosts cause a huge damage to the number of fish, especially valuable, commercial species. During periods of low water, a large number of eggs and young fish die, therefore, fish-breeding work is necessary. The lake is regularly re-stocked, it carries out commodity cultivation of fish. The first fish-breeding works in the lake were started in 1926 - 1927 years. Initially, carp, carp, and bream were acclimatized. Later, acclimatization of pike perch, peled, lin, nelma, muxun, Baikal omul was carried out, and in the case of stocking the lake, the headwind was randomly introduced. The first attempts to acclimatize the great successes have not been achieved, there has been no increase in catches. Later, acclimatization of pike perch was successful, and it reached a large number. The bulk of the bream dies in shallow water after the onset of the freeze, so its numbers have not yet reached the fishing level. At present, there is no reliable information about the presence of Baikal omul and nelma in the lake. The failure with omul is due to the fact that the lake for this type of fish is shallow. The acclimatization of pel'i was not successful because of the increased mineralization of water; now commercial production of peled is carried out, when larvae grown in hatcheries are released into the lake and the fish grow to commercial sizes. In addition, a significant part of the larvae of omul, muksun, peljadi and nelma were eaten by perch, roach and ulcer.
In 1976, on the Chulym River, a fish hatchery "Uryumsky" was built, which, among other things, is engaged in the cultivation and stocking of Lake Chany with young carp. Active stocking of young people with a mass of 25 - 80 grams led to the formation of a large self-reproducing carp population in the lake. According to the observations of the Novosibirsk branch of Sibrybniiproekt in 1993, the carp for the number of juveniles appeared ahead of aboriginal fish species - roach, yazya and perch. Economic crisis 1990-ies led to the fact that the scale of stocking the lake nursery significantly decreased.
Fish stocks are now considerably depleted in comparison with the XIX century. For the first time, the reduction in the catches of pike, carp and perch was recorded as early as the end of the XIX century: "... before they were abundant in fish, there were pikes in it weighing up to pounds, carp and perch from 5 to 7 - 8 f. Now, for unknown reasons, his fish wealth has become scarce and the fish has crumbled. " In the XX century in periods of high water levels catches of fish reached 10 thousand tons per year, in low water it decreased to 200 tons per year. In low water periods, the basis of commercial catches is occupied by low-value fish species. Among the main reasons for reducing catches are the following: Reduction and sharp fluctuations in the water level. Winter frosts. Freezing to the bottom of a large part (up to 25%) of the lake in winter. Reduction of the scale of stocking. Anthropogenic impact. The lake is officially allowed to catch nets when purchasing an appropriate license. The established quota for fishing is 2800 tons per year. Ichthyologists believe that the actual catches significantly exceed official statistics, in addition, poaching has been carried out on a large scale in recent years. Increase in the concentration of phenols, petroleum products, nitrogen compounds and other substances. High mineralization of water in the lake. The largest mineralization of water was recorded in Chinyaikhinsky (6 g / dm3) And Yarkovsky (2,5 g / dm3) Plesah. At the end of the 20th century, a form of silver crucian carp, called Amur crucian, entered the lake. Amurskiy crucian for several years rapidly multiplied, almost replacing from the lake can not withstand the competition of goldfish, and currently ranks first in the catches. Part of the perch population is infected with a gill mite. Opisthorchiasis in the fish of Lake Chana has not yet been noted.
The lake plays an important role for the migration of many species of waterfowl: ducks, gulls, geese, waders, swans, terns, coots, piebald. Of the rare species of birds on the lake, there are dens, Red-breasted goose, Asian bekseed-like spindle, sucker, shilok, stilt, black-headed gull, cedar, steppe turtulace, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, curly pelican. On the lake there are significant concentrations of waterfowl during periods of migration and molting. During migration and nesting on the lake there are up to 220 bird species, according to other data - up to 300 bird species. In the 1970-ies, according to estimates of ornithologists on the lake for the season, there were up to 1,5 million waterfowl. During the XX century there was a steady decrease in the number of waterfowl due to mass destruction. For example, in 1930 year in the Chanovski lakes system 9 million eggs were collected and even more were destroyed. At the beginning of the XXI century, the main anthropogenic factors reducing the number of birds were the destruction of nests during grazing in the coastal part of the lake, the death of birds in fishing nets.
From mammals on the lake, the muskrat dwells, in the forest-steppe lands, confined to the lake, there are foxes, hares, roe deer, badger, corsac, columns. The lake is rich in plankton, both zooplankton and phytoplankton. According to the data for 1983 year in the lake, 404 species of algae were found. In the Chinayikhinskoye plume, a high biomass of algae was noted, a strong development of phytoplankton adversely affects the fish population. Species diversity of zoobenthos is small, chironomids predominate, molluscs, caddis flies, kulicides, gammarids, oligochaetes, dragonflies, and pods are also found. On the banks and islands of the lake grow birch, cherry, viburnum, aspen, hawthorn, dog rose, currant, raspberry, fern. In 1940-ies on the northern shore of the lake were planted oak and pine pine. On some islands, for example, on the island of Uzkoredkiy wild peonies grow and blossom.