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Lake Taimyr




Lake Taimyr
Area: 4 560 km2
The greatest depth: 26 m

Lake Taimyr is a lake on the Taimyr Peninsula in the Krasnoyarsk Territory of the Russian Federation, part of the Taimyr Reserve. The second lake after Baikal in the Asian part of Russia. Taimyr is the northernmost in the world, a real large lake - its extreme northern point is north of 75 degrees north latitude. From the lake. Taimyr follows r. Lower Taimyr. The lake is ice-covered from late September to July, the average duration of an ice-free period is 73 days. The water temperature in August is + 8 ° C, in winter - slightly above zero. There are no permanent settlements, there is an inoperative meteorological station on the lake.

Lake Taimyr
general description

It is located far beyond the Arctic Circle, at the foot The Byrranga Mountains. The coast is heavily indented by shallow bays and bays. The gentle southern shore is composed of loose deposits of the Quaternary period. The northern shore, with the outputs of older bedrocks, rises sharply to the foothills of the Byrranga Range, from which numerous tributaries flow into the Taimyr. Some of the rivers start from mountain lakes, such as Lake Levinson-Lessing. In the western part there are many stony islands, in the eastern part there is a sandy island of Sokolov-Mikitov. The area of ​​the lake is located in the climatic zone of the tundra, the ubiquitous distribution of permafrost. The average annual air temperature in the region is -13,4 ° C, the average temperature of the warmest month of July is + 12,3 ° C. Despite the large amount of precipitation in the winter, strong winds and flat terrain prevent the formation of a significant snow cover. In summer, storms are frequent, during which there is a strong cloudiness of the water due to the shallow depth of the lake. The lake is characterized by a rise in the level from the beginning of summer to August, followed by its decrease to the next spring, during which 75% of the water volume is lost. A change in the level during the year leads to a significant - up to 30-50% - change in the area of ​​the mirror, up to 84% of the entire Lake Taimyr freezes to the bottom during each winter, including up to 25% of the permanent water area of ​​the lake. Seasonal decline in water level can reach a height of 1,5 m above sea level, and the area of ​​Lake Taimyr - shrink to 1 200 km2. A small depth and a drop in the water level on average at 5,9 m during the winter period lead to deformation of the ice cover and cracking. The thickness of the ice reaches 2-3 m, the formation of cracks followed by the fall of ice floes is accompanied by a strong crack and noise.

Lake Taimyr
Flora and fauna

Despite its location in the lake, there are 20 species of fish. The most widespread are such species as whitefish, chir, muxun. Also there is burbot, omul, croissant, grayling. In small quantities, there is a Siberian bull-sinker. On the peninsula, the following representatives of the birds live: ducks, geese, swans, moose-bugs, swans, Peregrine Falcon. For wintering, birds fly to warmer regions, in the summer they return to reproduce. An interesting phenomenon observed on Lake Taimyr is the absence of higher aquatic vegetation, while there are individuals belonging to the marine water complex and Baikal. In Taimyr there are Arctic species of fish - whitefish, muksun, char, etc. There are no representatives of the higher aquatic flora in the lake, the food chain of aquatic animals is based on phytoplankton. During the winter period, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water drops, since in summer many organic substances are carried here. The decay of sediments makes the region of the deepest basin inaccessible to fish. The fauna of Lake Taimyr was investigated for the adaptation of the species inhabiting it and the possibility of their migration to Siberian reservoirs, which also differ by significant level changes throughout the year. Mostly in Taimyr, the flora and fauna of the marine aquatic complex of living organisms are represented, as well as species specific for Baikal. The appearance of the first species is explained by the communication of the lake with the sea through the Lower Taimyr and changes in the level of the world ocean in different historical periods. The presence of representatives of the Baikal ecosystem is explained by glacial periods, during which the hydrological regime of the region changed drastically with the formation of large glacial lakes in the north of Asia. The islands of Taimyr are a nesting place for migratory birds - red-breasted geese, geese, etc.

Lake Taimyr
Climate

Lake Taimyr is located in the difficult northern conditions of the tundra and forest-tundra. Almost everywhere there is permafrost. In the area of ​​Lake Taimyr, the climate is somewhat warmer than in other parts of the peninsula. The average air temperature during the year does not exceed -13,4 С, in the warmest month of July it is + 12,3 С. In winter, constant precipitation is typical for the region. In this case, a strong wind and plains prevent the formation of a large snow layer. In the summer on the peninsula, the sun shines all day, illuminating the water surface of the lake with rays. During this period the lake comes to life. During the summer period, the lake is characterized by a storm. Polar summer and polar winter make their adjustments to the flora and fauna of the region. Plants develop faster, the period of planting accelerates. Nestlings appear faster than in other climatic zones. All living things try to have time to go through the stages of development, in a short time of the polar summer. In the tundra there are no pathogens, so warm-blooded organisms can tolerate lower temperatures more easily. Ultraviolet rays, which are abundant here, increase the overall tone of organisms and at the same time purify the air of microbes. It is believed that in the summer time people will feel much better in the tundra than in the usual climatic conditions.

Lake Taimyr



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