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Onega Lake




Onega Lake
Area: 9700 km2
The greatest depth: 127 m

Lake Onega is a lake in the north-west of the European part of the Russian Federation, located on the territory of Karelia, Leningrad and Vologda regions. The second largest lake in Europe after Ladoga. Refers to the pool The Baltic Sea Atlantic Ocean. The area of ​​the lake without islands is 9690 km2, And with the islands - 9720 km2; Volume of water mass - 285 km3; Length from south to north is 245 km, the greatest width is 91,6 km. The average depth is 30 m, and the maximum is 127 m. On the banks of the Onega Lake are the cities of Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga and Medvezhyegorsk. In the Onega Lake, there are about 50 rivers, but only one - Svir.

Onega Lake
Shores, bottom relief and hydrography of the lake

The area of ​​the Onega Lake mirror is 9,7 thousand km2 (Without islands), length - 245 km, width - about 90 km. The northern shores are rocky, strongly indented, the southern shores are predominantly low, undivided. In the northern part of the mainland, many lips, stretched like mites of cancer, fall into the mainland. Here, far into the lake, a huge peninsula Zaonezhye, to the south of which lies the island of Bolshoe Klimenetsky. To the west of them is the deepest (up to 100 m and more) part of the lake - Bolshoy Onego with the lips of Kondopoga (with depths up to 78 m), Ilem Gorsky (42 m), Lizhemskaya (82 m) and Unitska (44 m). To the south-west of the Big Onego extends Petrozavodsk Onego with its bays Petrozavodsk Bay and small Yalgub and Pingub. To the east of Zaonezhye the bay is stretched to the north, the northern part of which is called Povenetsky, and the southern part is the Bay of Zaonezh. Deep plots alternate here with sandstones and groups of islands, which dismember the bay into several parts. The southernmost of these sites is Small Onego with the depths of 40-50 m. A lot of stones near the shores of the lake.

Onega Lake

The average depth of the lake is 31 m, the maximum depth in the deepest northern part of the lake reaches 127 m. The average depth in the central part is 50-60 m, the bottom bottom rises to 20-30 m. The Onega Lake is characterized by numerous sharply pronounced increases and Lowering of the bottom. In the northern part of the lake there are many gutters, alternating with high ups of the bottom, forming banks, on which fish trawlers often catch fish. Much of the bottom is covered with silt. Typical forms are ludas (shallow rocky shoals), selgas (deep-sea bottom elevations with stony and sandy soils, in the southern part of the lake), underwater ridges and ridges, as well as basins and pits. Such a relief creates favorable conditions for the life of fish. For the regime of Onega Lake, the spring rise of water is characteristic, which lasts 1,5-2 months, with the annual amplitude of the water level up to 0,9-1 m. The drain from the lake is regulated by the Verhnesvirskaya HPP. Rivers bring up to 74% of the return water balance (15,6 km3 Per year), 25% falls on atmospheric precipitation. 84% of the expenditure part of the water balance falls on the flow from the lake along the Svir River (average 17,6 km3 Per year), 16% - on evaporation from the water surface. The highest water levels of the lake in June-August, the lowest levels in March-April. Observed frequent disturbances, storm waves reach 2,5 m height. The lake freezes in the central part in the middle of January, in the coastal part and in the bays - in late November - December. At the end of April, the mouth of the tributaries is opened, the open part of the lake is in May. The water in the open deep parts of the lake is transparent, with visibility up to 7-8 m. The bays are slightly smaller, up to one meter or less. Fresh water, with mineralization 10 mg / l.

Onega Lake
Animal and plant life

The low shores of Lake Onega are swamped and flooded when the water level rises. On the shores of the lake and on its islands, in reed and reed thickets, ducks, geese and swans nest. The coastal area is covered with dense taiga forests in virgin condition. Onega Lake is distinguished by a significant variety of fish and aquatic invertebrates, including a significant number of glacial epoch relics. In the lake there are sterlet, salmon lake, trout lake, trout brook, paladia luda, palia pit, ryadushka, ryadushka-kilts, whitefish, grayling, smelt, pike, roach, dace, bream, bream, , Catfish, eel, pike perch, perch, ruffle Onega, underburner, burbot, river and river lamprey lamprey. In total, in the Onega Lake, there are 47 species and varieties of fish belonging to 13 families and 34 species.

Onega Lake
The islands

The total number of islands in the Onega Lake reaches 1650, and their area is 224 km2. One of the most famous islands on the lake is Kizhi Island, which is the eponymous museum-reserve with wooden temples built in the XVIII century: the Transfiguration and Pokrovsky churches. The largest island is Bolshoe Klimenetsky (147 km)2). There are several settlements on it, there is a school. Other islands: Bolshoy Lelikovsky, Suisari.




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