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Amur tiger




Amur tiger
Latin name: Panthera tigris altaica
Family: Cat's

The Amur tiger (Ussuri or Far Eastern) is the largest tiger in the world. And the only tiger who has mastered life in the snow. The Amur tiger is one of the smallest subspecies of the tiger. It is listed in the Red Book.

Description

The Amur tiger, according to modern data, refers to the largest subspecies, wool is thicker than that of tigers living in warm regions, and its color is lighter. The main coat color in winter is orange, the belly is white. This is the only tiger that has on the belly a five-centimeter layer of fat, which protects from the freezing wind at extremely low temperatures. Body elongated, flexible, rounded head, paws short, long tail. The ears are very short, since it lives in a cold area. The Amur tiger discerns colors. At night, he sees five times better than a man. The body length of male Amur tiger to the tip of the tail reaches 2,7-3,8 m, females are smaller. Height at withers up to 115 cm, weight 160-270 kg. The greatest weight of the Amur tiger males living in the wild does not exceed 250 kg. The normal adult male tiger on average weighs 180-200 kg at a height at the withers in 90-106 see Tiger - the beast is easily vulnerable, despite its large size and enormous physical strength. He can drag a carcass over the ground more than 500 m. In the snow, he is able to reach a speed of up to 50 km / h.

Amur tiger
Distribution

The tiger's habitat is concentrated in a protected area in the south-east of Russia, along the banks of rivers Cupid And Ussuri in the Khabarovsk and Primorye Territories. In total in Russia for 1996 year there were about 415-476 individuals. About 10% (40-50 individuals) of the Amur tiger population lives in China (Manchuria). Most of all, Amur tigers are common in the foothills of the Sikhote-Alin in the Lazovsky district of Primorsky Krai, where each sixth wild Siberian tiger (2003) lives in a relatively small area. It is planned to settle the Amur tigers in the Pleistocene Park in Yakutia. In the languages ​​of the peoples of the Amur tiger, instead of its direct definition, "Taschu" (tiger) is often called "Amba" (large), so as not to cause trouble. In zoos of the world on 20 February 2007 year contained more than 450 individuals (844 individuals on 1 January 1979).

Amur tiger
Life

The Amur tiger is the lord of huge territories, the area of ​​which is 300-500 km2. If there is enough food within their holdings, the tiger does not leave its territory. With a lack of game, the number of attacks of tigers on large livestock and dogs is increasing. The Amur tiger is active at night. The female, like a male, marks the territory with urine or scratches on the bark of trees. Moving through their possessions, the tiger constantly monitors its own marks and signs of other tigers. Odorous marks play a role not only in the designation of the hunting territory, they also provide the animals of both sexes with a meeting during the rut. The areas of males and females may overlap, as males protect their land only from other males, paying special attention to the main border points. Males lead a solitary life, females are often found in groups. Tigers greet each other with special sounds, formed with vigorous exhalation of air through the nose and mouth. Signs of friendliness are also touched by the heads, muzzles, and even friction by the sides.

Amur tiger
Food

Despite the tremendous strength and developed sense organs, the tiger has to devote much time to hunting, since only one of the 10 attempts is successful. Tiger crawls to his victim crawls, while moving in a special way: arching his back and resting his back paws on the ground. Small animals, he kills, gnawing through his throat, and large ones first hits the ground and only then bites the cervical vertebrae. If the attempt fails, the tiger is removed from the potential victim, as it rarely attacks repeatedly. Killed prey tiger is usually dragged to the water, and before going to bed hides the remains of the meal. He often has to drive away competitors. The tiger eats lying, holding the booty with its paws. Specialization of tigers is hunting for large ungulates, but on occasion they do not disdain fish, frogs, birds and mice, and eat fruits of plants. The basis of the diet is composed of the deer, spotted and noble deer, roe deer, wild boar, elk, lynx, and small mammals. The daily norm of the tiger is 9-10 kg of meat. For the successful existence of one tiger, it is necessary to have an order of 50-70 ungulates per year. Despite the widespread opinion about cannibalism, the Amur tiger almost never attacks a man and rarely visits people's settlements. In fact, he tries in every possible way to avoid a person. Since 1950-ies in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories in the settlements, only about a dozen attempts to attack a man have been recorded. In the taiga, attacks even on pursuing hunters are quite rare. Life expectancy is about 15 years.

Amur tiger
Reproduction

Sexual maturation occurs from 4-5 years. The period of mating is not confined to a certain season. The female during her estrus leaves marks of urine and scratches on the bark of trees. Since the ownership of tigers is very large, the female often goes herself in search of a partner. She is ready for mating on the third or seventh day of estrus. Mating in tigers is multiple, at this time the animals stick together. Then the male leaves the female and goes in search of a new partner. After 95-112 days 3-4 of the blind cub is born. Mother feeds them with milk. The eyes of the cubs open after about 9 days, and at the age of two weeks they begin to grow teeth. The cubs first leave the shelter at the age of two months. The mother brings them meat, although she continues to feed milk for 5-6 months. Since six months, the tiger cubs have been accompanied by the mother during the hunt. The female teaches the cubs to hunt. Such preparation for an independent hunting life lasts for months. Tiger cubs play a lot, which also helps them learn the skills necessary for hunting. At one-year-old age cubs for the first time go on independent hunting, and by two years they are already able to overcome large prey. However, the first few years of his life the cubs are keeping with their mother. The tigress hunts along with the young tigers until they reach puberty.

Amur tiger
Protection

The Amur tiger is listed in the Red Book of Russia. In April 2007, WWF experts announced that the population of the Amur tigers had reached a hundred-year maximum and that the tiger was no longer on the brink of extinction. In 2008-2009, a complex expedition of IPEE RAS staff members took place within the framework of the "Amur Tiger" Program on the territory of the Ussuriisk Reserve of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the Primorye Territory of the Russian Far East. It was possible to find out that six Amur tigers live in this territory. With the help of satellite collars, scientists follow their routes, and for the first tagged female tiger within a year managed to get 1222 locations. According to published studies, the animal uses an area of ​​almost 900 km2 - despite the fact that the area of ​​the reserve is only 400 km2. This means that tigers go far beyond the protected area, subject to increased danger. These data, according to the publication, give grounds to talk about the need to create a conservation zone of the reserve and regulation of human activities outside it.

Amur tiger



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