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Wild boar

Wild boar
Latin name: Sus scrofa
Family: Pigs

Boar, or wild boar, or wild pig - mammal from the order of cloven-hoofed animals, suborder of pig (non-ruminant), family of pigs. It is the ancestor of a domestic pig. In mythology - "fearless beast."

The boar is an omnivorous cloven-hoofed non-ruminant mammal from the genus of pigs (Sus). It differs from the domestic pig, which undoubtedly originated from the wild boar (and other closely related species), has a shorter and denser body, thicker and high legs; In addition, the head of the wild boar is longer and thinner, the ears are longer, sharper and, moreover, standing, sharp, the fangs are more developed and sharper: in the male they are much more developed than in the female. The bristles, in addition to the lower part of the neck and back of the abdomen, form on the back something like mane. Bristles of black-brown color with an admixture of yellowish, undercoat brownish-gray, due to this the general color is gray-black-brown, muzzle, tail, lower part of legs and hooves - black. Colored and pie copies are rare and they are considered descendants of wild domestic pigs. Length of body up to 2 m, tail 25 cm, shoulder height 95 cm; The weight of an adult wild boar can reach 150-200 kg.

Wild boar

A massive animal on short legs, the body is short, its anterior part is more massive than the back, the back in the area of ​​the shoulder blades is strongly elevated, the neck is thick and short, the head is wedge-shaped, the tail is thin and short. On the nose <Penny>, In the males, the upper and lower fangs protrude from the mouth, the ridge of bristles rising on the back when the beast is excited. Coloring fur from whitish to black, pronounced age changes - piglets brownish, with light yellowish stripes. There are no similar species on the territory of the former USSR. Geographic variability is very high, 50 forms are described on the basis of the variability of craniological characters, body sizes and signs of coloration, but 26-28 subspecies are recognized as real ones, of which 5 is inhabited in the territory of the former USSR.


Wild boars are found in broadleaf and mixed forests of mainland Central Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals), the Mediterranean (including parts of North Africa, including the Atlas and Cyrenaica), the steppe regions of Eurasia, Central Asia, northeast Asia; In the north it reaches 50 ° s. In the east to the Amur and the Himalayas; Over these limits (in South Asia, South and Central Africa), it is replaced by related species. In ancient times the range of wild boar was much wider than the modern one. In Middle Europe and the Middle East, he used to be almost everywhere, now in many places destroyed, as in all of England. It is believed that the ancestors of modern domestic pigs are the boars of Mesopotamia and Europe. In Russia, boar is found in significant areas of the European part of Russia (except for the northeastern tundra and taiga regions), the Caucasus, and southern Siberia; On Tien Shan it goes back to 3300 m. In Europe, European wild boars are brought by man as an object of hunting and spread in the wild along with feral domestic pigs. In Australia, feral pigs are similar in lifestyle to wild boars.

Wild boar

The boar is kept in water-rich, marshy areas, both wooded and overgrown with reeds, shrubs, etc. Old males live mostly alone and join the herds only during mating. Females form usually small herds of 10-30 females and young and young, weak males. The fever is from November to January; Between the males there are at this time fierce fights. Pregnancy lasts about 18 weeks, the number of piglets (born normally once a year) 4-6 and sometimes 12; At first they are painted with white, black-brown and yellow stripes, helping to masquerade in the forest litter. The female carefully protects the cubs and furiously protects them from enemies. The sexual maturity of the wild boar reaches about 1,5 year old, the adults become 5-6 years old. The movement of the boar is awkward, but fast, it swims perfectly and can swim considerable distances. Vision is poorly developed, but the sense of smell and hearing are very good. Wild boars are careful, but not cowardly; Irritated, wounded or defending young, they are very brave and dangerous in their strength and because of large fangs. In addition to humans, wild boars, mostly young, are dangerous only wolves and lynx, and in South Asia tigers, who, incidentally, rarely attack old large males. By day, the boars lie in the excavated pit; Sometimes a common lair is arranged. In the evening they go out to bathe and look for food, consisting mainly of vegetation (roots, fruits, acorns, etc.), but also including various small animals and carrion. They can also visit fields of potatoes, turnips, cereals, harming agriculture, especially by tearing and trampling crops. They often spoil the young trees. Very rarely wild boars attack large animals, sick or wounded, for example, deer, roe deer, even deer, kill and eat them. The meat of the boar is delicious (for which it was tamed), skin and bristles are also useful.

Wild boar

Habitats are very diverse - from the zone of dark coniferous taiga to deserts, in the mountains in all the belts up to the Alpine zone. Limited to polygam. It leads a herd life all year round, the size of the herd varies throughout the year. Adult males (sweepers) outside the period of the gong live singly (odntsy). The size of the site depends on the feed and the security of the place, varies by season. In winter, the plot area from 0,5 to 2,5 sq. M. Km. On the site there are loungers, places for feeding, bathing and trails. They communicate by means of olfactory and acoustic signals, vision is poorly developed. Boars arrange lezhki (lair, gayna) from dry grass, reeds and branches, in which, together with the female, the pigs lay down to a year-old age, the males fall separately. They use <Bathing> in dirt. The food is varied and variable, includes four groups of feeds: underground parts of plants (rhizomes, roots, tubers, bulbs of plants) - the basis of nutrition all year round; Seasonal feed (fruits, nuts, berries and seeds); Vegetative aerial parts of plants; Animal feed (worms, mollusks, insects and their larvae, small vertebrates, carrion). The gon passes in November - January. The sternum in March is me, more often in April. Pregnancy 114-140 days. The number of piglets is usually 4-6, max. - 10-12. Newborns (weight 600-1000 g) covered only with bristles, the sub-groove grows later, the color is striped. Until 2-week-old pigs are at risk of running up and hiding. Sexual maturity of the female reaches 8-10 months in males - in 18-20 months but participation in reproduction is taken later.

Wild boar

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